|The Tripartite Mahzor|
Germany, early 14th century, Parchment
14 1/4 x 9 1/2 in. (46.2 x 24.1 cm)
Bodleian Libraries, University of Oxford, MS. Mich. 619, fol. 5b
Included in the exhibit will be the Kennicott Bible, created in Spain in 1476 and considered one of the most richly illustrated existing manuscripts of its era. Two works in the hand of Maimonides, one of the most prominent Jewish philosophers and rabbinic authorities will also be on view. This exhibit continues a tradition of spectacular multi-cultural and ecumenical exhibits of medieval religious works begun (if my memory serves) with the exhibition Convivencia in 1992. For scholars, and for a lay audience too, it is important to view works of art in their broad cultural context. This exhibit will also show the religious and philosophic links between works of Jewish, Muslim and Protestant Christian theologians. - SDG
The following information is adapted from materials supplied by The Jewish Museum
The exhibit showcases a selection from the Bodleian’s world-renowned holdings within the larger context of the history of medieval Christian Hebraism – the study by Christian scholars of the Hebrew Bible and rabbinic sources, which first received full expression in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. As Protestantism took hold in the sixteenth century, Hebraist trends resurged, sparking interest in the collecting of Hebrew books, and propelling the formation of the Bodleian’s outstanding Hebraica collection.
Scholar and diplomat Sir Thomas Bodley began establishing the Bodleian Library in 1598 after retiring as ambassador to Queen Elizabeth I and devoted the rest of his life to building its collection. Bodley reopened the library room at Oxford that had been completed in 1488 to house a collection of manuscripts given by Duke Humfrey of Gloucester (1390-1447). But in 1550 during the Reformation, it was stripped and left abandoned. A staunch Protestant, whose family had fled England during Queen Mary’s Catholic reign, Bodley was also a humanist and Christian Hebraist who viewed the creation of a Hebraica collection as integral to his vision for the new library. It would be housed in a masterpiece of English Gothic and Jacobean architecture, and is today one of the oldest libraries in Europe.
Composed of three thematic sections, the exhibition will open with three beautifully illuminated Hebrew manuscripts representing the main European centers of medieval production—Ashkenaz (Franco-German origin), Sepharad (Spanish or Portuguese origin) and Italian. The first section covers the early dissociation between Christianity and Judaism to later medieval Christian attempts at finding common ground with Judaism. Reinforcing the early separation between the two faiths, Christians began using the codex or book while Jews held fast to the roll format. Leaves of the codex could be used on both sides and be made more portable, unlike scrolls, and thereby accelerated the propagation of Christianity.
On view will also be one of the two earliest Latin Gospel Books extant from the British Isles, dating to the late 6th or 7th century, and one of the earliest known Hebrew codices. By the middle of the 12th century, Christian scholars began seeking out learned Jews to explain readings of the Hebrew Bible and, by the 13th century, actively studied the language, consulting original Hebrew texts in an effort to better understand the Scriptures.
A great cross-fertilization between Christians, Muslims and Jews occurred during the late Middle Ages in arts, sciences and the culture at large, which is the focus of the second section. Significant works by Greek, Muslim and Jewish authors were translated from Arabic to Latin, often with the help of Jewish scholars. Writings of famous ancient Greek thinkers like Aristotle, Hippocrates, Euclid and Ptolemy were suddenly available, making a world of ideas accessible to many in Europe for the first time. The most famous work in the show, the magnificent Kennicott Bible, is displayed in this section with its Islamic, Christian and popular motifs merging in one single work. A Jewish scribe and a Jewish artist created this beautifully illuminated manuscript in Corunna, Spain in 1476, almost two decades before the expulsion of the Jews from the Iberian Peninsula.
The final section is devoted to understanding the Bodleian’s Hebraica collection as an important sign of Christian Hebraism’s resurgence in the 16th century. Some of the most exceptional examples of Hebrew manuscripts anywhere, all with stellar provenances, demonstrate the library’s more than four-century-long commitment to Hebraica. Nicholas Hilliard’s exquisite miniature portrait of Sir Thomas Bodley is paired with George Gower’s stunning 1579 portrait of Queen Elizabeth I (reigned, 1558–1603) during whose rule the library was established. A great treasure is Queen Elizabeth’s Book of Oxford presented to the Queen in 1566 upon her visit to Oxford. This book opens with a poem on the importance of Hebrew learning encouraging the Queen to continue the work of her father, Henry VIII, in supporting the study of the language at the university. And so it has been for over 450 years through a royally endowed position that ensures the study of Hebrew and Jewish culture and religion to this day.
The cross-cultural approach presented in Crossing Borders: Manuscripts from the Bodleian Libraries is very much in the spirit of Thomas Bodley’s founding vision for his library. In his time as today, it transcends ideological and religious boundaries to create a broader framework within which the rich legacy of Christians, Muslims, and Jews can be better understood.
Leadership support for Crossing Borders: Medieval Manuscripts from the Bodleian Libraries is provided by the David Berg Foundation. Generous support is provided by The Achelis Foundation and the Joseph Alexander Foundation, with additional in-kind support from George S. Blumenthal. This presentation is made possible with endowment support from The Jewish Museum Centennial Exhibition Fund and the Horace W. Goldsmith Foundation Exhibition Fund.
About The Bodleian Libraries of the University of Oxford
The Bodleian Libraries of the University of Oxford form the largest university library system in the United Kingdom. They include the principal University library—the Bodleian Library—which has been a library of legal deposit for 400 years; major research libraries; and libraries attached to faculties, departments and other institutions of the University. The combined library collections number more than 11 million printed items, in addition to 30,000 e-journals and vast quantities of materials in other formats. The Old Bodleian is also a major visitor attraction, drawing over 300,000 visitors a year. More information about the Bodleian Libraries and their activities can be found at www.bodleian.ox.ac.uk.
About The Jewish Museum
Widely admired for its exhibitions and collections that inspire people of all backgrounds, The Jewish Museum is one of the world’s preeminent institutions devoted to exploring the intersection of art and Jewish culture from ancient to modern times. The Jewish Museum organizes a diverse schedule of internationally acclaimed and award-winning temporary exhibitions as well as dynamic and engaging programs for families, adults, and school groups. The Museum was established in 1904, when Judge Mayer Sulzberger donated 26 ceremonial art objects to The Jewish Theological Seminary of America as the core of a museum collection. Today, a collection of 26,000 objects is maintained – paintings, sculpture, works on paper, photographs, archaeological artifacts, ceremonial objects, and broadcast media. The collection is among the three largest of its kind in the world and is distinguished by its breadth and quality. It is showcased in the vibrant, two-floor permanent exhibition, Culture and Continuity: The Jewish Journey, examining the Jewish experience as it has evolved from antiquity to the present.
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